CONTENTS

Preface

To the Student

EVALUATING IDEAS: An Introduction to Critical Reading 1

WRITING ABOUT IDEAS: An Introduction to Rhetoric 13

PART ONE: DEMOCRACY 51

Howard Chandler Christy, Scene at the Signing of the Constitution of the United States 57

Aristotle, Democracy and Oligarchy 59

The Founding Fathers, The Constitution of the United States of America 75

James Madison, Federalist No. 51: on the Separation of the Departments of Power 109

Alexis de Tocqueville, Government by Democracy in America 121                       

Carl Becker, Ideal Democracy 143

Julius K. Nyere, One-Party Government 165

Benazir Bhutto, Islam and Democracy 177

Stephen L. Carter, The Separation of Church and State
 

PART TWO: GOVERNMENT 195

Eugene Delacroix, Liberty Leading the People 200

Lao-Tzu, Thoughts from the Tao-te Ching 203

Niccolò Machiavelli, The Qualities of the Prince 219

Jean-Jacques Rousseau, The Origin of Civil Society 237

Thomas Jefferson, The Declaration of Independence 259

Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions 269

Hannah Arendt, Total Domination 279

Marcus Tullius Cicero, The Defense of Injustice


PART THREE: ETHICS AND MORALITY 293

Joseph Wright, An Experiment on a Bird in the Air Pump  298

Henry David Thoreau, Civil Disobedience 301

Frederick Douglass, from Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave 327

Friedrich Nietzsche, Morality as Anti-Nature 343

Iris Murdoch, Morality and Religion 359

Martin Luther King, Jr., Letter from Birmingham Jail 375

Kwame Anthony Appiah, The Case Against Character 397

Michael Gazzaniga, Toward a Universal Ethics 415

Aristotle, The Aim of Man e-Page
 

PART FOUR: WEALTH AND POVERTY 433

Henry Osawa Tanner, The Thankful Poor 438

Adam Smith, Of the Natural Progress of Opulence 441

Karl Marx, The Communist Manifesto 453

Andrew Carnegie, The Gospel of Wealth 481

John Kenneth Galbraith, The Position of Poverty 499

Robert B. Reich, Why the Rich are Getting Richer and the Poor, Poorer 513

Milton and Rose Friedman, Created Equal 

A WORLD OF IDEAS, 9th Edition

Bedford/St. Martins 2013

A World of Ideas introduces students to important thinkers whose ideas have shaped civilizations throughout history – from Plato to Adam Smith, from Virginia Woolf to Judith Butler, and from Machiavelli to Martin Luther King, Jr. This collection of essential readings is accompanied by extensive apparatus that helps students to understand, analyze, and respond critically to the great ideas of the world.  This book is available in a variety of e-book formats. For details, visit bedfordsmartins.com/worldofideas/formats.
 

 

 

 

 

 

PART FIVE: EDUCATION, 533

Norman Rockwell, The Problem We All Live With 539

Hsun Tzu, Encouraging Learning 543

John Dewey, Thinking in Education 555

Maria Montessori, The Montessori Method 571

Carter G. Woodson, The Mis-Education of the Negro 587

Jonathan Kozol, The Uses of Diversity 605

Howard Gardner, Designing Education for Understanding 619

Ralph Waldo Emerson, On Education 


PART SIX: GENDER AND CULTURE 645

Mary Cassatt, In the Loge 650

Mary Wollstonecraft, Pernicious Effects Which Arise from the Unnatural Distinctions Established in Society 653

John Stuart Mill, The Subjection of Women 669

Virgina Woolf, Shakespeare's Sister 689

Margaret Mead, Sex and Temperament 707

Germaine Greer, Masculinity 725

Judith Butler, From Undoing Gender 739

Karen Horney, The Distrust Between the Sexes


PART SEVEN: LANGUAGE 761

Wosene Worke Kosrof, The Color of Words IX 766

Susanne K. Langer, Language 769

Mario Pei, Theories of Language Beginning 783

James Baldwin, If Black English Isn't a Language, Then Tell Me, What is? 795

Bill Bryson, Where Words Come From 805

Neil Postman, The Word Weavers/ the World Makers 825

Noam Chomsky, New Horizons in the Study of Language 843

Alexander Pope, from An Essay on Criticism


PART EIGHT: DISCOVERIES AND THE MIND 857

Salvador Dali, The Persistence of Memory 861

Plato, The Allegory of the Cave 865

Francis Bacon, The Four Idols 879

Charles Darwin, Natural Selection 897

Sigmund Freud, The Oedipus Complex 915

Carl Jung, The Personal and the Collective Unconscious 827

Rene Descartes, Fourth Meditation: Of Truth and Error 


INDEX OF RHETORICAL TERMS